Declaration: of Scotland and England
Declaration of both kingdomes

The declaration of the kingdome of Scotland and England, joyned in armes for the vindication and defence of their religion, liberteis and lawes against the popishe, prelaticall and malignant pairtie, by the honorable convention of estates of the kingdome of Scotland and the honorable houses of the parliament of England etc. in the yeir 1644.

If either Christian duetie, which, by reason of the light of the Gospell so cleirlie shyneing amongest us, might have beene expected frome the professoris of religion, or if naturall affection, which even in the heathen and infidells ignorant of Christ hath abounded toward their native countrey, or sincere respect to his matie honour and happines could have beene found in the wayes or heartis of our commoun enemies of trueth and peace; if they had either feared God or regarded men or yeelded to our importunities, we had not, efter so manie petitions, declarations and remonstrances as have filled all men's eares and handis, bene putt to this necessitie of a new declaration, which theirfore must be more pathetick and pressing then anie of the former. Nor efter so manie troubles and sufferings of the kingdome of Scotland, efter the desolation of the kingdome of Ireland and efter so much blood and so manie unnaturall tragedies in the kingdome of England had we beene reduced to this present condition and joynt posture of armes, the Lord, whose counsells are a great deepth and who is righteous in all his wayes and holie in all his workes, hath just caus of controversie against us and this whole iland. But who would have beleeved that our religion, liberteis and lawes which for so long a tyme have endured oposition and assaultes of forrane power envying our happines would have been opposed, oppressed and trode under foote by the craft and crueltie of our owne natives and countreymen?

In this our extremitie, first of all we declaire that we place not our confidence in our owne counsells and strenth, bot our confidence is in God Almightie, the Lord of hostes who will not leave nor foresake his people. It is his owne trueth and cause that we mantein with all the reformed churches and which hath beene witnessed and sealled by the testimoneyes, sufferingis and blood of so manie confessoris and martyres against the heresy, superstition and tirranie of Antichrist, the glorie of his own name, the exaltatione of the kingdome of his soune, and the preservation of his churche and of this whole iland frome utter ruine and devastation is our ayme and the end which we have before our eyes. His covenant we have in both nations solemnlie suorne and subscribed, which he would not have putt in our heartis to doe if he had beene pleased to destroy us. The manie prayeris and supplications which these manie yeeres past, bot especiallie of late, have beene offered up with fasting and humiliation and with strong crying and teares unto him that is able to delyver and save us are a seed which promise unto us a plentifull harvest of comfort and happines; and the apostacy, atheisme, ideclarie2, blasphemie, profainnes, crueltie, excesse and oppen mocking of all godlines and honestie have filled the cupp of our adversaries to the brime and threatten their speedie and fearefull distruction unles it be prevented by suche extraordinarie repentance as seemeth not yett to have entered into their heartis. Upon these and the lyke grounds and considerations, being confident that this warre wherein both nations now firmelie united are so deeplie ingadged is of God, we resolve with courage and constancie unto the end to doe our pairt, and the Lord who hath stired up our spirittis, displeyed his banner before us and given the alarum doe that which seemeth him good.

Secondlie, although everie man is to hope for the principall reward of his service frome God (who rewardis everie on[e] according to his workis), yet we find our selffis bund in conscience and equitie to declare that besyde these who have the publict faith ingadged to them for thair securitie, suche as since the beginning have done vallantlie and delt faithfullie in this cause, and such as have choisen rather to suffer the spoyleing of their goodis then to assist the enemie or to take armes against their religion and countrey, and sall continue constant in the same course of doeing or suffering unto the end, shall be according to their merite taken into publict notice and consideration, there losses (so farre as may be) repaired and themselfes honored and rewarded by suche means and wayes as we trust God in his providence sall affoord and the parliamentis or estates of the tuo kingdomes respectively shall in their wisdome, justice and thankfulnes judge most convenient, so that no man who hath beene eminent in action or hath suffered anie notable losse for the publict sall be neglected or slighted, bot one way or other shall be thankfullie remembred to his owne honour and the good of his posteritie.

Thridlie, although newtrallitie and indifferencie in the tyme of the danger of religion be a thing detestable to God (who willeth all Christians earnestlie to contend for the faith), and suche as have beene newtralls or indiffrent in the tyme of civill divisions and danger of the commoun wealth have beene in all nations severlie punished as pernitious and publict enemies, yitt that the consciences of all men may be the more convinced and all pretextis removed, we give now publict warneing to suche persons to rest no longer upon their newtrallitie or to please themselves with the nauchtie and slothfull pretence of indifferencie; bot that they addres themselffis speedilie to tak the covenant and joyne with all their power in the defence of this cause against the commoun enemie, and by their zeale and forwardnes heirefter to mak up what hath beene wanting through their lukwarmnes. This they will find to be their greatest wisdome and saiftie, otherwayes we doe declaire them to be publict enemies to the religion and countrey, and that they are to be censured and punished as professed adversaries and malignantis.

Fourthlie, becaus a great manie of the multitude of the people, upon ignorant mistakingis, false informations and threattis or compulsion aganis their willis and inclinations, have beene induced or constrained to joyne in armes with the enemie aganis their religion and native countrey, we doe declaire that all commoun souldieris who upon the humble acknowledgement of their former erroris shall offer themselffis willinglie and speedilie to take the covenant and sall joyne heartillie and reallie in the defence of this caus, as becometh good Christians and loveris of their countrey, sall be frielie accepted in the covenant and their former erroris passed by. Otherwayes, let them expect the punishment of wilfull delinquents and malignants.

Fyftlie, becaus some of the Scottishe nation upon their owne privat respectis or upoun specious pretences and faire persuasiones have joyned themselfes in armes with the popishe, prelaticall and malignant pairtie against the parliament and kingdome of England, and not considering the nature of the caus in which they have beene engadged nor the deep interest of the churche and kingdome of Scotland upon which this warre was to turne, in the end have beene fighting against their owne religion and native kingdome, we doe therefore againe warne all suche of whatsoever qualitie and in quhatsoever place speedielie to withdraw themsellfes frome that factione, to confesse there mistaks and to joyne in the covenant and caus of God in both kingdomes before the [...] day of [...]. Otherwayes, we declaire on the behalfe of the kingdome of England that they are to expect no favour, bot are to be used as desperat malignantis. And we declaire in the behalfe of the kingdome of Scotland, if they either continue in armes efter the foresaid [...] day of [...], or withhold their helpe and assistance from their native countrey in this tyme of trouble and danger, they are to be censured and punished as publict enemies to their religion and countrey, perfidious transgressoris of their Nationall Covenant and their estates disposed upon for the use of the publict.

Sixtlie, becaus there be diverse noblemen, knightis, gentilmen, citizens and otheris who, by forsakeing or diserting the parliament of England and by joyneing them selffes to the enemies of religion, his maties happines and peace of the kingdomes, have made the divsion greatter and the breaches wyder betuix the king and his parliament, and thereby, contrarie to the dewtie of their places and callingis, have beene the caus of the sheding of muche innocent blood, of great losses and of manie miseries and dangeries to the publict of both kingdomes and of the sufferingis of privat men in their estates and lives, and yet are not to be reckoned amongs the prime authoris of this unnatural warre nor amongs the malicious and desperat enemies of their religion and countrey, we doe declaire that all suche forsakeingis their former opposition, returneing to their dewtie and endeavouring the good of religion and the publict peace shall as to their lyves and liberties of their persons be secured and shall be receaved into favour. Bot to the end that a just difference may be made betuix suche persons returneing so late to their dewtie and those that never depairted frome it, they most expect that toward the peyment of the publict debtis, releeveing the common burdens of the kingdomes and repaireing of particular losse (all which in great part have beene contracted and susteened by their default or procurement) their estates in some proportion should be lyable, and that as the wisdome and discretion of the parliament, or of suche as sall be authorized be them (who will be alls carefull to prevent their ruine as to punishe their delinquencies) shall find and judge to be necessarie for that end, quherin also the tyme of their delinquencie, returneing and offering themselves, the realitie of their affections and intentions and readines to joyne with the commoun cause and covenant will be taken into speciall consideration; and incaice they persist in thair opposition and sall not returne before the [...] day of [...], they are not to expect favour, bot shall be punished as publict enemis to their religion and countrey.

Seventhlie, becaus papistis and popishe recusantis, according to the principalls of their professiones, have ever beene plotting and contryveing the change of religion in this iland and the ruine of all the professoris theirof; and efter the frustration of their attemptis, haveing waitted for suche a tyme as this, have alienated the heart of the kingis matie frome his Protestant and loyall subjectis, taken armes against the parliament and kingdome and by all their meanes and power have mantained a bloodie and unnaturall warre, presumeing in the end to have their execrable superstitione and idolatrie sett up in place of the true reformed religion and the king and his kingdomes to be brought under the power and tirranie of the Pope, we doe heirby declaire that papistis, who have beene now or shall be actuallie in armes under the fals pretence of defending of the kings person and authoritie, are to looke for no favour, bot to be punished as trators and professed and intollerable enemies of religion and their native countrey. The same declaration we also make against all such Irish rebellis, whither papistis or otheris, who have come over from Ireland and assisted in this warre against the parliament and kingdome of England.

And lastlie, becaus there be some few wicked and devilishe spiritis of both kingdomes who have kindled and fomented the fyre of division and warre betuix the king and his parliament, or have misgoverned his maties counsells and courses to his owne dishonour and to the distruction of his loveing and dewtifull subjectis, or have infused malignitie in otheris or have beene restles and active instruments of the troubles and miseries of his maties dominions,

We doe declaire, concerneing those who are or salbe found by the supreeme judicatories of the kingdomes respective or their committees appoynted for that effect to be such that as the conscience of there owne bad deserveings hath made them to dispare of favour and theirby uncessantlie to work more and more mischeife against their religion and native countrey, so are they to looke for suche execution of justice as is dew to tratoris and enemies of religion of the king and his kingdomes, for terror and example to otheris in all tyme to come.

And it is further now declaired that the whole estates, reall and personall, moveable and inheritance of these that sall not come in at the tymes before limitted in the 6th article, and of the persons before expected3frome pardoun (as of papistis in armes, Irishe rebells and those who salbe fund to come within the compasse of the precedent article), sall be foirfited and employed for paying the publict debtis, releaving the commoun burdens of the kingdomes and repaireing of particular losses.

And this declaratione we make not from anie presumption or vaine glorying in the strenth of our armies and forces, bot frome the sence of that dewtie which is requyred and expected from the high places and publict relationes wheirin we stand, and frome the assureance we have of the assistance of God, by whose providence the trust and confidence of those kingdomes is putt into our handis at this tyme; haveing efter long and grave consultation resolved and decreed never to lay doune armes till trueth and peace by the blissing of God be setled in this iland upon a firme foundation for the present and future generations, which shall be esteemed of us ane aboundant reward of all that we can doe or suffer in this cause.

  1. NAS. PA8/1, f.116r-118v.
  2. Sic. 'idolatrie' in APS.
  3. Sic. 'excepted' in APS.