Ratificatioun of the reformatioun of the Universitie of Sanctandrois

Forsamekle as oure soverane lord and his thrie estaitis in his last parliament, considering that the universiteis of this realme appointit for educatioun of the yowth, quhilk sould be the seid and uphald of the commounn welth and kirk of God, being weill foundat alsweill in rentis as provisioun of maisteris, teachearis and bursaris, wer, notwithstanding, misused be particuler personis to thair awin advantage, without respect to the diligent upbringing of the yowth in vertew and guide lettres, litill regarding the comounn welth of this realme and posteritie to cum, and that the forme of teicheing wes, for the maist pairt, unproffitable, quhairby the yowth tynt thair tyme and parentis frustrat of thair expectatioun; thairfoir his hienes, with advise of his saidis estaitis, gaif, grantit and committit full power and commissioun to certane noble, reverend, worshipfull and discreit personis expressit in the act of parliament maid thairanent to visite and considder the fundationis and erectionis of the universiteis and collegis within this realme to reforme sic thingis as soundit to superstitioun, ydolatrie and papistrie, to displace unqualifiit and unmeit personis to dischairge thair offices in the saidis universities, to plant sic qualifiit and worthie personis thairintill as their sould fynd gude and sufficient for educatioun of the yowth; quhilkis personis sa appointit, failing to convene at the first diett, na thing wes performit till of lait, that the mater being rememberit be directioun from the generale assemblie of the ministrie, speciallie thinking the Universitie of Sanctandrois meit to be reformit, his hienes, with avise of the lordis of his secreit counsale, ordanit and commandit the maisteris of the said universitie to be at Edinburgh at ane certane day with the fundationis of thair collegis, to be sene and considerit be ony sex, five or foure of sic noble, reverend and circumspect personis as his majestie, with avise of his said counsale, had chosine, committing to thame full power to visite and considder the saidis fundationis, to remove all superstitionis and papistrie, to displace unqualifiit personis and plant worthie and qualifiit in thair rowmes, to redres the forme of studyis and teacheing be ma or fewar professouris, to joyne or devide the faculteis, to annex every facultie to sic college as salbe found maist proper and generalie to establishe sic ordour in that universitie as sall maist tend to the glory of God, proffeit of this commounn welth and gude upbringing of the yowth in sciences neidfull for continewing of the trew religioun to all posteriteis, like as the act of secreit counsale thairupoun at mair lenth proportis; and they convening at Edinburgh, and haveing sene and considerit the fundationis and erectionis of the said Universitie of Sanctandrois, hes found the present estate in all the collegis thairof sa fer alterit from the first institutioun, the maist pairt of the verie foundationis sa fer disaggreing with the trew religioun and sa fer different from that perfectioun of teicheing quhilk this learnit aige cravis, and they neidfull directionis, quhilkis the auld fundationis appointis, being in mony thingis omittit and neglectit, hes thairfoir, with comounn consent, divisit and drawin ane mair proffitable and perfite ordoure to be observit in the said universitie in tyme cuming, as the same subscrivit with the handis of the saidis commissionaris at mair lenth beris; quhilk his hienes, with avise of his thrie estaitis, ordanis to be heir insert, and of the same the tennoure followis:

To the richt excellent, richt heich and michty prince, James the Sext, be the grace of God, king of Scottis, oure soverane lord, youre majesties daylie oratouris and maist honourable subjectis, your hienes commissioneris for reformatioun of the Universitie of Sanctandrois undersubscrivand speciallie constitutit, having at command and directioun of your majestie sene and considerit the fundationis and erectionis of the said universitie and bene credibly informit of the present condition thairof, with the ordour of exercise observit thairin thir sindrie yeiris bigane, and findand the estate of all the collegis at this present tyme sa fer alterit from the first institutioun, the maist pairt of the verie fundationis sa fer disaggreing with the trew religioun and sa fer different from that perfectioun of teacheing quhilk this learnit aige cravis, and they neidfull directionis, quhilk the auld fundationis appointis, being in mony thingis omittit and neglectit, we have, thairfoir, with commoun consent, divisit and drawin the forme and ordour following as mair proffitable to be observit in the said universitie in tyme cuming, to the glorie of God, honnour of your majestie, proffite of this commoun welth and gude upbringing of the yowth in sciences neidfull for continewing of the trew religioun to all posterities. First, we ordane the New College for the studee of theologie allanerlie, in the quhilk five maisteris daylie teacheing sall in four yeiris compleit the haill cours of the New and Auld Testament and the comoun places in this ordour, viz., the first lectour in the first sex monethis sall teiche the preceptis of the Ebrew grammer and practize thairof in David, Salamon, Job; in the uther sex monethis, the preceptis of Caldaicque, Syraicque and use of the samin in Daniell, Esera, the Paraphrasis and Syriacque New Testament; the secund lectoure in the secund yeir and ane half sall interpreit out of the Ebrew and sensiblie oppin up the law of Moses and the historie of the Auld Testament, conferring with the Paraphrasis, Septuagintis and uther lernit versionis quhair neid beis; the thrid lectour in the last yeir and ane half sall, with the like diligence, expone the Prophettis, greit and small; the fourt lectour sall teiche the New Testament out of the Greik toung during the haill course, conferring with the Syriacque; the fyft lectour sall reid the commoun places during the haill cours swa that the studentis of theologie, heiring daylie thrie lessonis the space of foure yeiris, sall with meane diligence becum perfite theologians; to this end thair salbe daylie repetitionis, anys in the oulk publict disputationis, everie moneth declamationis, thrie solemne examinationis in the cours: the first in the end of the first yeir in the toungis and sa fer as they have hard of the Commoun Places and New Testament; the secund examinatioun efter the secund yeir and ane half in the law, historie and samekle as salbe red of the Comoun Places and New Testament; and the thrid examinatioun in the end of the cours in all the toungis, the haill Bible and Commoun Places; thir thrie solemne examinationis salbegyne the tent day of September, quhairin everie learnit man salbe frie to dispute. And becaus thair is greit raritie at this present of men learnit in the knawlege of the toungis and uther thingis neidfull for sic professouris, we have thairfoir electit certane of the maist qualifiit personis knawin to us as the saidis five maisteris for teacheing of the course of theologie in the order befoir writtin in the said New College, to begyne howsoune possibillie they may be transportit thairto; of the quhilkis, thrie to entir this present yeir, and ordanis the personis now occupeing the place of maisteris in the said college to remove thairfra withut dilay. Item, quhen it salhappyne ony of the five maisteris or professouris to inlaik or that the nowmer sall not be full, that the electioun of qualifiit personis thairfoir sall from this furth pertene to the Bischop of Sanctandrois, the conservatour of the privilegis of the said universitie, the rectour, deanis of facultie and remanent maisteris of theologie, or the maist pairt of thame that salbe present in Sanctandrois the day appointit for the electioun; for quhilk purpois, the rectour, or incaise of his absence or negligence the deane of facultie, within sex dayis efter the vaicanse of the rowme be disceise or utherwise, sall affix ane edict upoun ane monethis warning that all learnit men may convene furth of all pairtis of the realme, of quhome the worthiest efter dew examinatioun to be preferrit; and to the same personis, electouris sall belang the charge of depositioun and deprivatioun of sic as salbe thocht unworthie aither in doctrine or lyff or not doing thair dewitie faythfullie and diligentlie in that professioun quhairunto they happyne to be electit. Item, we ordane aucht bursaris in theologie to be ressavit, teachit and have thair buirdis upoun the rentis of the said New College, the stipendis and buirdis of the maisteris heirefter specialie declarit being first allowit. Item, becaus it is cleirlie undirstand that thair hes bene and is greit corruptioun and abuse in ressaving of the bursaris in everie facultie rather upoun favour and sollistatioun then for vertew or in support of povirtie, thairfoir that in ressaving of burssaris in tyme cuming, aither in theologie or ony uther facultie, thair be ane publict edict affixt be the first maister of the college, or incaise of his absens or negligence, be the nixt maister, upon tuenty dayis warning of befoir the first day of October yeirlie, and be diligent examinatioun of the rectour, deanis of facultie and the maisteris of the college quhair the burse happynnis to vaik, the puirest to be preferrit, ceteris paribus gif he salbe found alsweill learnit and qualifiit, without prejudice alwayis of the lawit patronis quha, notwithstanding, salbe haldin to present qualifiit personis, and that nane sall bruik ane burse in ony facultie bot for the space of foure yeiris; and that everie bursare in theologie foundit or to be foundit in quhatsumevir college in the said Universite of Sanctandrois salbe bundin to resort to the lessonis and exercise of the said New College now appointit for theologie and compleit thair course as said is. Item, that learning may further incres and qualifeit personis onlie be providit to ecclesiasticall offices and chairges within this realme, we ordane that efter the space of foure yeiris immediatlie following the dait heirof, nane salbe admittit to the ministrie of the word of God and sacramentis or ony benefice havand cure of sawlis except sic as hes compleitit thair cours in theologie, or, be rigorous examinatioun be the facultie, salbe found worthie and qualifeit to ressave all thair degreis in the said facultie. Item, that the yowth may atteane unto perfite knawlege of humanitie and trew philosophie, we ordane that in aither of the uther tua collegis, viz., Sanctleonardis and Sanctsalvatouris, thair salbe, besydis the principall, foure ordiner professouris or regentis, everie ane continewing in his awin professioun; the first regent in the first yeir of the course sall teache the preceptis of the Greik toung and use thairof in the best and maist easie authouris, with exerceis in compositioun, the first sex monethis in Latine, the rest in Greik; the secund regent sall teiche the preceptis of inventioun, dispositioun and elocutioun the secund yeir, schortest, easiest and maist accurate with practize thairof in the best authouris of bayth the toungis; the thrid regent sall teitche the maist proffitable and neidfull pairtis of the logikis of Aristotle, with the ethikis and politikis all in Greik and the offices of Cicero in Latine; the fourt regent sall teiche in Greik samekle of the phisikis as is neidfull with the spheir. Item, that the buikis maist neidfull and proffitable salbe appointit for everie classe be the rectour, deanis of facultie and thair assessouris. Item, that everie authour be red in that toung quhilk they write into. Item, that the tua classes of humanitie sall spend at the leist ane hour daylie in compositioun. Item, that in the last sex monethis of the secund yeir they salbegyne to declame anys in the moneth in Greik and Latyne alternatim besidis thair daylie compositionis, quhilk declamatioun sall continew the tua last yeiris. Item, that emulatioun may be steirit up amangis the saidis scollaris, that they be dividit in decuriis and he preferrit to greitest honnour quha best declamis or composis his theme anys in the moneth to be gevin for that end. Item, that in every ane of the saidis foure classes thair salbe everie Sonday ane lessone in Greik: the first in the evangell of Sant Luke, the secund in the actis of the Apostillis, the thrid in the epistillis to the Romanis, the fourt in the epistle to the Ebrues. Item, becaus the youth tynis mekle tyme yeirlie be lang vaicance, we ordane that the vaicance sall induir the onlie moneth of September and befoir the first day of October everie ane sall returne, at the quhilk day the examinatioun of the scollaris of humanitie and philosophie salbegyne, amangis quhome the worthie to be promovit and the negligent to be haldin back. Item, that about the tuenty day of August they that have endit thair course, efter rigorous examinatioun being found qualifiit, salbe maid maisteris. And quhen it salhappine the principall or ony of the foure ordiner professouris and regentis in aither of the saidis tua collegis appointit for humanitie and philosophie to inlaik, or that the nowmer appointit sall not be full, the electioun of qualifiit personis thairunto sall pertene to the saidis bischop, conservatour, rectour, deanis of faculteis and remanent maisteris of all the thrie collegis, or the maist pairt of thame that salbe present at the day appointit for the electioun; for quhilk purpois, edictis salbe sett up in maner and within the like space as is prescrivit in the electioun of the maisteris in the college of theologie. And the bursaris in art to be ressavit and admittit be rigour of examinatioun yeirlie in tyme cuming efter this present at the first day of October, that the principall of Sanctsalvatouris College salbe professour in medicine and the principall of Sanctleonardis in the philosophie of Plato, quhilkis sall reid ordinarlie foure tymes in the oulk, Monunday, Tuysday, Wednisday and Fryday, at the houris to be appointit be the electouris and maisteris of the universitie; that the lawer and mathematiciane of befoir in the New College sall now be in Sanctsalvatouris College and have thair stipendis and buirdis upoun the fruictis thairof, and be electit and admittit as the maisteris of the collegis; that the lawer now appointit to remane and be in Sanctsalvatouris College sall reid within the same foure lessonis of the law ouklie, viz., on Monunday, Tuysday, Wednisday and Fryday, to quhilkis lessonis in the law salbe ordiner auditouris all the advocattis and scribis in the consistorie and sic utheris as ar desirous to proceid in the facultie of the law, and that nane be admittit befoir the lordis or uther jugeis to ordiner procuratioun except they sall gif first specimen doctrine in the Universitie of Sanctandrois and report a testimoniall of the said universitie witnessing thair qualificatioun and howfar they have proceidit in the studie of the law and thairwithall affirming that they diligentlie keipit the lessonis salang as they remanit in the universitie; that the mathematiciane now in Sanctsalvatouris College sall reid within the same foure lessonis ouklie in the mathematik sciences in sic dayis and houris as salbe appointit to the saidis lawer and mathematiciane be the rectour and maisteris of the universitie, quhilkis alsua sall appoint the ordiner auditouris for the mathematiciane. That the electouris and maisteris of all the collegis in the universitie, the provest of the citie, with sic tua of the baillies thairof as they sall think meit to tak with thame, or samony of this nowmer as ar present in the citie for the tyme, sall convene with the principallis of the thrie collegis every yeir upoun the first day of October, and be comoun consent and aggrement condiscend and prescrive the prices of buirdis and maner and nowmer of courses of sic as levis collegialiter for the yeir then to cum; that the prices and ordour may be uniforme in all the thrie collegis, quhairthrow the differences of prices or diversitie of cheir prejuge nane of thame. That the wounted obedience, reverence and authoritie that in auncient tyme wes gevin to the chancellair, rectour, deanis of faculteis and conservatour and of lait yeiris hes sumquhat decayit, be restorit, and that everie ane of the cheif officiaris, quhether it be in jugement geving upoun thame that ar undir thair jurisdictioun or in visiting the collegis, be mantenit and nawise stoppit be ony allegit privilege in the contrarie. And that in place of the pane of cursing usit of befoir upoun offendouris and inobedientis, they be now decernit be decreit of the rectour and cheif membris of the universitie, efter the cognitioun of the caus, to be debarrit, secludit and removit out of the universitie and to tyne and foirfalt the privilegis and benefittis thairof, to the executioun of quhilk decreit the provest and baillies of the citie of Sanctandrois sall concur and assist gif the necessitie sua requeir and that they be thairunto be the universitie requirit; or utherwise thair sall siclike lettres pas, be deliverance of the lordis of counsale and sessioun, upoun the said decreit and disobedience thairof, as had wount to be gevin of befoir upoun cursit personis within the said universitie upoun the requisitioun of the same. That the pointis properlie belanging to the office of the chancellair, rectour, deanis of faculteis and conservatour of the universitie be socht out of the auncient statutis, fundationis and privilegis be the personis presentlie occupying the same offices, and that everie ane present his awin to your majestie betuix and the first day of Marche nixtocum, to the effect that the samin, being found gude and allowable, may alsua be registrat and remane with thir present statutis. That the foundat personis in everie college, alsweill teachearis as studentis, be first weill qualifiit according to the ordour now appointit, and nixt that they be diligent in dischairgeing of thair offices to the intent that nouther ignorance nor ydilnes in place of science and vertuus lauboring be mantenit or permittit, bot that everie ane according to the ordour presentlie appointit be exercisit. That the wyffis, bairnis and servandis of the principallis and utheris maisteris in the universitie be put apairt in the cietie out of the collegis, swa that wemen, to a evill and slanderous example, have not residence amang the young men studentis, nor yit that the same wemen have ony administratioun and handilling of the commoun guidis of the college, to the greit prejudice thairof, and of sic as frielie wald gif thame selffis to the studie of lettres; be it alwayis heirby undirstand that the bairnis and servandis of the saidis principallis and maisteris that salbe actuall studentis lauchfullie and orderlie enterit in the college ar not heirby secludit. That everie college be visiit thryse in the yeir be the rectour, deanis of faculteis, with thair assessouris, conforme to the statutis of the universitie. And for keiping of gude ordour and uniformitie, that everie mannis plaint be hard and the default quhatsumevir correctit; and quhair outhir the rectour or deane of facultie is principall or maister in ony college, in that caise the remanent electouris and visitouris to visite that college. That the principallis of the collegis betuix and the first day of Maii nixtocum certifie your majestie quhat personis ar enterit to thame of new be presentatioun of your hienes or uther patronis as bursaris to ony prebendreis or siclike rentis and quhen everie ane enterit, and that they alsua gif warning to your hienes or utheris patronis quhen the rowmes vaikis, outhir be deceis, deprivatioun or ending of the course and dew tyme and thair entres in respect of the termes of pament to be reknit outhir at Martymes or Witsonday. That quhen the bursare presentit sall not be found qualifiit, the principall or maister sall be his awin lettre, direct with ane uther (nor the pairtie repulsit), certifie your majestie or uther patroun of the cause of non admissioun or deprivatioun, to the effect that ane uther sufficientlie qualifiit may be presentit to the rowme of new; the like certificatioun to be at the yeirlie examinatioun of the bursaris incaise they be not found worthie to proceid furthward in thair degreis. That in all admissioun and promotioun the examinatouris and assessouris be sworne that they sall admit nor promove nane bot sic as salbe, be the rigour of examinatioun and sufficient literature, found worthie to be promoted. That all publict lectouris have a register of all the ordiner auditouris cummand to the lessone, alsweill of thair awin college as without, and that the saidis auditouris subscrive the discipline and be subject to the exercise and disputatioun and the day of thair entrie to be registratit. And seing the personis presentlie to be displacit (beside the provest of the New College quha hes alrady the charge of the ministrie of the cietie and parochyne of Sanctandrois, quhilk is a burding greit aneuch for ony ane man to discharge) ar outhir regentis or bursaris in philosophie, thairfoir that the regentis displacit be preferrit to the places of bursaris in theologie in the said New College, gif they will accept the same, and the bursaris of philosophie thairin quhilk hes bene lauchfullie ressavit to be still nurished and intertenyit quhill the end of thair course, upoun the stipendis of tua of the maisteris of the said New College quhilkis sall not entir quhill the rentis of the same college convenientlie may sustene thame; and the saidis bursaris to resort to thair lessonis in any of the uther tua collegis quhair they think meitast quhill the end of thair course, to be continewit in sic forme as they begouth. The principall maisteris of the collegis salhave na intromissioun with the commoun guidis and rentis thairof, bot ane yconomus chosyne and havand commissioun of the haill maisteris of everie college, of quhilk yconomus they sall ressave daylie compt; and that thair be in everie college ane comoun kist, with a sindrie lok and key for everie maister thairof, for preservatioun of the rentis of the college quhill the samyn be richtlie distributit with comoun consent. And tuecheing the rentis and distributioun thairof, we ordane the rentis of the kirkis annext of auld to the feis of severall maisteris in Sanctsalvatouris College to remane and be comptit in tyme cuming amang the ordiner rentis of the same college; and that aither of the tua principall maisteris, professouris of theologie in the said New College, salhave for thair fie and thair awin and thair servandis buird ane hundreth pundis money and thrie chalderis victuall, viz., tuelf bollis quheit, ane chalder beir and ane chalder, foure bollis aitis; everie ane of the uther thrie maisteris and professouris of theologie in the same college, ane hundreth pundis and ane chalder victuall, viz., foure bollis quheit, sex bollis beir and sex bollis aitis; everie ane of the aucht bursaris of theologie within the same New College salhave for his buird tuenty tua pundis sex schillingis aucht pennyis money, tua bollis quheit, five bollis beir, tua bollis aitis and the rest of the rentis to be bestowit for the feis of the comoun servandis, reparatioun of the place and reservit for publict usis upoun compt; in the collegis of humanitie and philosophie, the principall maister and the laweir and the mathematiciane, everie ane for his awin fie and his awin and his servandis buird, ane hundreth pundis money and ane chalder aittis; everie ane of the uther foure ordiner professouris or regentis befoirwrittin for his fie and his buird, ane hundreth markis; and for the buird of everie bursare in philosophie, fiftie markis, reservand the rest of the rentis for the feis of the comoun servandis, reparatioun of the place and utheris publict usis upoun compt, providing that all personis thus ordanit to leif on the college rentis and that hes ordiner chairges within the collegis apply that quhilk is appointit for thair buird and eat togither within the college in sic sort as they can best aggrie amangis thame selffis. That it be nawise lauchfull to the maisteris of ony of the saidis collegis to sett the kirkis, landis, fruictis and rentis annext thairto in few or takkis, to the diminutioun of the rentall, or be the changeing of victuall in prices of silver, undir the pane of deprivatioun from thair places; and incaise ony salhappyne maliciouslie to do utherwise, that it be worthie caus of deprivatioun to the settare and that the sett, few or dispositioun quhatsumevir salbe na langar valiable to the purchessour thairof, nor the settaris, bruikis, thair places and rowmes in the college. And for executioun of this present reformatioun, we huimbly and earnestlie require your majestie to grant commissioun to sic honorable, worthie and zelous personis as your hienes and your estaitis sall think expedient that will and may attend thairto, specialie to command thame to call befoir thame all sic as hes had the chairge of the saidis collegis and intromettit with the rentis thairof in tyme bigane, and to heir and see thair comptis subscrivit, discharges to thame, ressave thair rentaillis, librariis, insicht, plenissingis, upoun perfite inventair, and deliver the same upoun the like inventair to the maisteris now to be placeit according to this reformatioun in the saidis collegis, with formall and gude rentallis to be maid of the rentis of everie ane of the saidis collegis for the better collectioun and compt thairof in tyme cuming, inhibiting the personis now displacet of all further melling and intromissioun with the saidis rentis and all fewaris, fermoraris, tennentis, takismen, parochynnaris and utheris quhatsumevir of all ansering, obeying and pament making of the same to the saidis displacit personis of the terme of martymes nixtocum of the crop of this instant yeir of God jM vC lxxix yeiris, certifeing thame that dois in the contrair they salbe compellit to pay the same over agane. And that it may pleis your majestie to caus visite and consider the said universitie of new at the end of foure yeiris following the first day of October last bipast, that it may be knawin quhat fruictit and effectit followis be this reformatioun, and alwayis fra thynefurth at the end of everie foure yeiris, and that it may pleis your hienes according to your godlie zeall, alwayis to the avancement of Goddis glorie and gude lettres, to grant unto the said universitie and to the maister and membris actuallie resident thairin and to the yconomus and procuratour of everie college the like privilege for calling and expeditioun of thair actionis and causse befoir the lordis of counsale and sessioun as is grantit to the prelattis and membris of the college of justice, and sa to provide for sustentatioun of the ministrie at the kirkis annext to the saidis collegis be the superplus of the thriddis and utheris ecclesiasticall rentis, as neither the rentis of the collegis be diminishit nor the foundat personis withdrawin from thair ordiner studyis and teicheing to serve as ministeris at particuler kirkis. In witnes quhairof, we have subscrivit thir presentis with oure handis. At Edinburgh, the aucht day of November the yeir of God jM vC thriescoir nyntene yeiris. Sic subscribitur, Levinax, R. Dumfermling, G. Buchannane, James Halyburtoun, P. Young.

Thairfoir, oure said soverane lord, with avise of his thrie estaitis, ratifeis, apprevis and confermis the said reformatioun of the said Universitie of Sanctandrois, maid at his hienes command as said is, and for putting of the same in full executioun, his majestie, with avise of his saidis estaitis, gevis and grantis full power, commisioun and aucthoritie to his dearest and onlie greit uncle Robert, erle of Levinax, lord Dernlie, commendatair of the priorie of Sanctandrois, Andro, erle of Rothes, lord Leslie, schirref of Fyff, Patrik, archebischop of Sanctandrois, Patrik, lord Lyndsay of the Byris, Robert, commendatair of Dumfermling, his hienes secretair and archdeane of Sanctandrois, Johnne Erskyne of Dun, Maister Johnne Wynrhame, priour of Portmook, Maister James Halyburtoun, provest of Dundee, or ony thrie of thame conjunctlie, commanding all the present ministeris and membris of the said universitie to answer and obey the saidis commissionaris in executioun of the said reformatioun, according to the effect and meaning thairof, and gif neid be to mak oppin durris and lokkis, for the quhilk the doaris sall incur na danger in thair personis, landis or guidis nor sall not be callit nor accusit for the samin, criminalie nor civilie, be ony maner of way in tyme cuming, the auld fundationis and erectionis of the saidis collegis and haill universitie, or ony thing contenit thairin, notwithstanding, quhairanent his majestie with avise of his saidis estaitis dispensse, and that the lordis of counsale and sessioun direct lettres to the effect respective abonewrittin in forme as effeiris.

  1. NAS, PA2/12, ff.47v-49v.