Declaration: the Solemn League and Covenant between Scotland and England
Covenant to be betuix the two kingdomes

The quhilk day the earle of Lindsay produceit and exhibite befoir the conventioun of estaites ane covenant agreit upon betuixt the committies of the conventioun of estaites and of the generall assembly and the comissioneres of both the housses of the parliament of Ingland, as the result of thair consultationes concerneing the desyres of both housses of the parliament of Ingland for a neir and strict union to be entered into by the tuo kingdomes. Off the quhilk covenant the tenour followes:

We noblemen, barrones, knichts, gentlemen, citizenes, burgesses, ministeres of the Gospell and comones of all sortes of the kingdomes of Ingland and Scotland, by the providence of God liveing in on[e] illand under on[e] king and of on[e] true Protestant reformed religione, haveing befoir our eyes the glory of God and the advancement of the kingdome of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Chryst, the honour and happines of the king's matie and his posteritie and the true publict libertie, saffetie and peace of the kingdomes quherin every ones privat condition is includeit; and calling to mynd the treatcherous and bloodie plots, conspiracies, attemptes and practisies of the enemies of God against the true religione and professoures theroff in all places, especially in this illand ever since the reformatione of religione, and how much thair rage, power and presumptione are of lait and at this tyme increassed and exerceised, wheroff the deplorable estate of the church and kingdome of Ireland, the distressit estait of the church and kingdome of Ingland and the dangerous estaite of the church and kingdome of Scotland are present and publict testimonies. We have now at last (efter the uther meanes of supplication, remonstrance, protestatione and sufferings) for the preservatione of our selffes and our religione from utter rwine and distructione, according to the commendable practise of these kingdomes in former tymes and the exemples of God's people in other nationes, efter mature deliberatione, resolved and determined to enter into a mutuall and solemne league and covenant, wherin we subscryve and with our hands liftit up to the most hich God doe sweir:

1. That we sall all and each on[e] of us sincerelie, really and constantly thruch the grace of God endevour in our severall callings and places the preservation of the true Protestant reformed religion in the church of Scotland in doctrine, worship, discipline and governement according to the word of God, and the reformation of religione in the church of Ingland, according to the same holy word and the example of the best reformed churches, and as may bring the churches of God in both nationes to the nearest conjunction and uniformitie in religione, confession of faith, forme of church governement, directorie for worship and catechesing, that we and our posteritie efter us may as breithrein leive in faith and love.

2. That we shall in lyk maner without respect of persounes indevour the exstirpation of poperie, prelacie, superstitione, heresie, shisme and profainnes and quhatsoever salbe fund to be contrairie to sound doctrine and the power of godlines in both nationes, least we partak in other menes sinnes and thairby be in danger to receive of thair plagues, and that the Lord may be on[e] and his name on[e] in both kingdomes.

3. We shall with the same sinceritie, realitie and constancie in our severall vocatiounes endevour with our estaites and lyffes to preserve the richts and priveledges of parliaments and the liberties of the kingdomes respectively, and to preserve and defend the king's matie, his persone and authoritie in the preservatione and defence of the true religione and liberties of the kingdomes, that the world may beir witnesse with our consciencies of our loayelties and that we have no thocht nor intentiounes to diminisch his maties just power and greatnes.

4. We shall also with all faithfulnes endevour the discoverie of all such as have bein or shalbe incendiaries, malignantes or evell instrumentes to hinder the reformatione of religione, or to devyde the king from his people, or the on[e] kingdome from the uther, that they may be brought to publict tryell and receave condigne punishment as the degre of thair offence shall requyre or deserve, or the supreame judicatories of both kingdomes respectively or utheres haveing power from them shall judge convenient.

5. That we shall all and each of us according to our place and interest inviolablie observe the articles of the late treattie of peace betuixt the tuo natiounes, and shall by all good meanes indevour that justice be done without partialitie in maner foirsaid upon the opposeres of it, to the end that this blissed peace may be perpetuall to all posteritie.

6. That we shall also to the utmost of our abilitie in this common cause of religion, libertie and peace of the kingdomes assist and defend all these that enter into this league and covenant in the mantaining and preserving thairoff, and shall not suffer our sellffes directly or indirectlie by quhatsumever combination, persuasion or terrour to be devydit and withdrawin from this blissed union and conjunctione, whither to mak defection to the contrair pairtie or to geve our selffes into a detestable indifference or newtralitie in the cause of God, good of the kingdomes and honour of the king, but shall all the dayes of our lyffes zealously and constantly continew thairin against all opposition and promote the samen according to our power against all lettes and impediments quhatsumever, and quhat we are not able our selffes to suppresse and overcome, we shall reveill and mak knowen, that it may be timelie prevented and removed; all which wee sall doe as in the sicht of God. And becaus both nationes are guiltie of many sinnes and provocatiounes against God and his sonne, Jesus Chryst, as is manifest by our present distresses and dangeres, the fructs thairoff we professe and declair befoir God and the world our unfained desyre to be humbled for our awin sines and the sines of both natiounes, especially that we have not as we oucht valued the inestimable benefit of the Gospell, that we have not laboured for the puritie and power thairoff, that we have not endevoured to receive Chryst in our heartes, which are the causses of other transgressiounes so much abounding amongst us; and our true and unfainyed purpose, desyre and indevour for our selffes and all other under our power and charge, both in publict and private, in all dueties we ow to God and man to amend our lyffes, and each on[e] to goe befoir [the] other in the example of a reall reformatione that the Lord may turne away his wraith and heavie indignatione and establisch both the natiounes in treuth and peace. And this covenant wee mak in presence of the almichty God, the searcher of all heartes, with a true intentione to performe the same as we shall answer at that great day when the secreits of all heartes shalbe disclosed, most humblie beseitching the Lord to strengthen us by his holy spirite for this end, and to blisse our desyres and proceidings with such successe as may be delyverance and saiftie to his people and incuragement to other Christian churches groaning under or in danger of the yock of anti-Christiane tyrranie, to joyne in the samen or [the] lyk associatione and covenant to the glory of God, the inlairgement of the kingdome of Jesus Chryst and the peace and tranquilletie of Christiane states and commonwealth.

The committies of the conventioun of estaites of Scotland and of the general assemblie, being appoyntit to meit with the commissioners of the tuo housses of the parliament of Ingland upon the paperes delyverit in be the said commissioners unto the convention of estaits and unto the generall assemblie upon the [...] of this instant 1643 concerneing the desyres of both housses for a neir and strict union to be entered into by the tuo kingdomes; and it being declaireit of the said meitings with quhat sensible affectiounes the general assemblie and conventione did receive the desyres above mentionat, and how beneficiall it wold be for the more firme satlement of the said union that a covenant sould be entered into by both nationes, and this forme thairoff being by all the foirsaids persounes takine to most serious debate and consideratioun and agreid unto, it was thairupon resolved by them that it should be presentit to the generall assemblie, to the conventione of the estaites of Scotland and to the tuo housses of the parliament of Ingland by thair respective committies and commissioners, that it micht with all speid receive thair respective resolutiones.

  1. NAS. PA8/1, f.86v-88v. Back